Medical Lasers; Engineering, Basic Research, and Clinical Application 2018; 7(1): 13-20  
Pneumatic Injection Therapy-Induced Transcutaneous Penetration of Hypertonic Glucose Solution: Macro- and Microscopic Analyses of Human and Rat Tissues
Hyun-Jo Kim1, Seung-Ho Han2, A Young Park3, Heesu Kim4, Gi Woong Hong5, Ee Seok Lim6, Sung Bin Cho4,7
1CNP Skin Clinic, Cheonan, Korea 2Department of Anatomy, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea 3Department of Dermatology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan, Korea 4Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology Research Center, International St. Mary’s Hospital, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, Incheon, Korea 5Samskin Plastic Surgery, Seoul, Korea 6Thema Skin Clinic, Seoul, Korea 7Kangskin Dermatology Clinic, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Sung Bin Cho, Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology Research Center, International St. Mary’s Hospital, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, 25 Simgok-ro, Seo-gu, Incheon 22711, Korea, Tel: +82-32-290-3141, Fax: +82-32-290-3142, E-mail: drsbcho@gmail.com
Received: June 2, 2018; Accepted: June 11, 2018; Published online: June 30, 2018.
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Abstract
Background and Objectives
Pneumatic injection therapy (PIT) is a needle-free, penetration-enhanced, transdermal method of delivering drugs into the skin. This study evaluated topographically the PIT-induced transcutaneous infiltration of a 20% hypertonic glucose solution in fresh human cadavers and outlined the microscopic patterns and reactions to PIT with a 20% glucose solution in in vivo rat skin.
Materials and Methods
The penetration depths of a 20% glucose solution by PIT were analyzed macroscopically in 10 hemifaces from fresh cadavers. In addition, the infiltration patterns of PIT with a 20% glucose solution performed in vivo in rats were analyzed through a histology evaluation.
Results
Pneumatic injections of a hypertonic glucose solution generated PIT zones in the subcutaneous fat and superficial temporal fascia layers (10 out of 10 hemifaces), superficial layer of the deep temporal fascia (DTF; 8 out of 10 hemifaces), and deep layer of the DTF (7 out of 10 hemifaces). In addition, distinctive PIT zones were generated in rat tissues from the upper papillary deep to the muscle and fascia layers.
Conclusion
The data suggest that PIT-induced, jet infiltration of a 20% hypertonic glucose solution contributes to clinical improvement of skin laxity by stimulating the wound repair processes and increasing collagen production throughout multiple layers of the skin.
Keywords: Transcutaneous pneumatic injection; Prolotherapy; Hyperglycemic solution; Cadaver; Rat; Ultrasound


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