Med Laser  
Inhibitory effects of essential oil from Zanthoxylum coreanum Nakai on melanin production: protection against re-pigmentation after laser treatment
Ye-Na Kim1,*, Mi-Jin Park2,*, Zhenlong Zheng1,3, Sung-Suk Lee2, Kwang Ho Yoo1, Heesu Kim1
1Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology Research Center, International St. Mary’s Hospital, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, Incheon, Korea
2Division of Wood Chemistry, Department of Forest Products, National Institute of Forest Science, Korea
3Department of Dermatology, Yanbian University Hospital, Yanji, China
Correspondence to: Heesu Kim
Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology Research Center, International St. Mary’s Hospital, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, 25 Simgok-ro 100beon-gil, Seo-gu, Incheon 22711, Korea
Tel.: +82-32-290-3141
Fax: +82-32-290-3142
E-mail: yollikim@gmail.com
*The first two authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: October 14, 2018; Accepted: October 18, 2018; Published online: November 19, 2018.
© Korean Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery. All rights reserved.

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Abstract
Introduction
Zanthoxylum coreanum Nakai (ZCN) is a Korean lime tree that only grows in the southernmost areas of Korea, including Jeju Island. It has been used as both an herb in food and medicines for curing stomachache and skin disorders in Oriental medicine. Nevertheless, studies have yet to investigate the effects of ZCN on melanogenesis in the skin. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of ZCN essential oil on melanogenesis.
Materials and Methods
The essential oil was extracted from the fruits of ZCN by hydro-distillation at the National Institute of Forest Science. The viability of human dermal fibroblasts and B16F10 cells was determined by cell counting kit-8 assay. Mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and melanin assay were performed on B16F10 cells to evaluate the inhibitory effects of ZCN essential oil on melanogenesis. Also, gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis was performed to detect the components of ZCN essential oil.
Results
The ZCN essential oil inhibited human dermal fibroblast cell proliferation with an IC50 value of 0.06877% and B16F10 cell proliferation with an IC50 value of 0.01104%. Treatment with ZCN essential oil reduced tyrosinase activity in B16F10 cells, and the anti-melanogenic property was positively correlated with the concentration of ZCN essential oil. GC-MS analysis of ZCN essential oil identified β-Ocimene (24.48%), (-)-α-pinene (16.56%), 4-carvomenthenol (11.61%), and sabinene (10.81%) as the most abundant components.
Discussion
Our study showed that essential oil extracted from ZCN obtained from Jeju Island can be safely applied to the skin and may be useful as a potential skin-whitening ingredient in cosmeceuticals to prevent re-pigmentation or post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation after laser treatment.
Keywords: Zanthoxylum coreanum Nakai; Melanogenesis; B16F10 cells; Whitening


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