Medical Lasers; Engineering, Basic Research, and Clinical Application  
Proposed Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation (PBM) Mediated via the Stimulation of Mitochondrial Activity in Peripheral Nerve Injuries
Ji Eun Choi1,2
1Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Dankook University Hospital,
2Department of Medical Science, College of Medicine, Dankook Univeristy, Cheonan, Korea
Correspondence to: Ji Eun Choi
Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116, Korea
Tel.: +82-41-550-3284
Fax: +82-41-556-1090
E-mail: garimung@gmail.com
Received: August 2, 2021; Accepted: September 24, 2021; Published online: October 19, 2021.
© Korean Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery. All rights reserved.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Evidence shows that nerve injury triggers mitochondrial dysfunction during axonal degeneration. Mitochondria play a pivotal role in axonal regeneration. Therefore, normalizing mitochondrial energy metabolism may represent an elective therapeutic strategy contributing to nerve recovery after damage. Photobiomodulation (PBM) induces a photo-biological effect by stimulating mitochondrial activity. An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that PBM improves ATP generation and modulates many of the secondary mediators [reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and calcium ions (Ca2+)], which in turn activate multiple pathways involved in axonal regeneration.
Keywords: Axon regeneration; Mitochondria; Photobioodulation; peripheral nervous system


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